First, steel slag fertilizer was incorporated well with 5.0 kg soil in each plastic pot. In addition to these three components, steelmaking slag also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, and is used for a broad range of agricultural purposes, including dry field farming and pastures in addition to rice cultivation. Application of steel slag had no significant effect on Pb concentration of rice grain. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. The European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction is considered a useful technique for determining chemical forms of metals in soils which provides information concerning metal potential mobility and plant availability [29–31]. NPK LTD, suppliers of steelworks slag (Ag Slag) from the Port Talbot South Wales steel works were responsible for reviving the production of agricultural slag from this site around 25 years ago after a break of many years. fertiliser. Composition of fertilizer made of steelmaking slag. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by ISIJ innovative program for advanced technology, Iron & Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ). 17, 18, 19. Figures 13 and 14 show the changes in Ca and Si content of pore water (soil solution) in 2012 and 2013. A. Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China entitled “Immobilization of heavy metals in a contaminated paddy soil using nano-slag-based silicon fertilizer and ecological assessment” (Approved No. Changes in soil pH in paddy field in 2012. Fertilizers made of blast furnace slag or steelmaking slag are categorized in slag silicate fertilizer, byproduced lime fertilizer, slag phosphate fertilizer or iron matter of spe-cial fertilizer. The chemical composition of CaO, SiO2, and MgO in steel slag was the same as that of the raw inorganic fertilizer material, in terms of composition and also contained e ective components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5 [18,19]. The pile of steel slag occupies a huge area of arable land, and causes environmental pollution; moreover, 7%-15% steel can be recycled from steel slag. Each year, about 45 million tonnes of ferrous slag (iron and steel slag) is generated in Europe. Flowers,  G.  Rao,  K.  Welfare,  N.  Senanayake and  T. J. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Lead was mainly distributed in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction (F2, 50%) and residual fraction (F4, 40%). The Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were found to be below the maximum allowable limit level (0.2 mg kg-1) (GB 2762–2005). Lead was found to be mainly distributed in the F2 (50%) and F4 (40%) fractions. Pb concentrations of rice grain in all the treatments were below the maximum allowable limit value (0.2 mg kg-1). Email: Received 27 October 2014. Kim,  S.  Ueda and  S.  Kitamura:, N.  Maruoka,  M.  Okubo,  H.  Shibata,  X.  Gao,  T.  Ito and  S.  Kitamura: M.  Okubo,  N.  Maruoka,  H.  Shibata,  X.  Gao,  T.  Ito and  S.  Kitamura: T.  Ito,  W.  Nasukara,  M.  Saito and  S.  Kitamura: Rural Development Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan: Desalting Manual of Farmland, (2011). First, soil pH significantly affected Cd solubility in acid soil and the increase of soil pH by alkaline materials decreased Cd availability [46–48]. The basic slag is obtained by the various processes of steel manufacture. Steel plant slags mainly include blast furnace slag and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). The total Cd concentration is 0.28 mg kg-1 Cd, exceeding the Chinese Soil Environmental Quality Standard (0.2 mg kg-1 Cd) (GB15618-1995). Each pot was loaded with 5 kg of air-dried and sieved (2 mm) latosol. K.  Saito,  A.  Yamamoto,  T.  Sa and  M.  Saigusa: The  R Foundation: Homepage of the R Project for Statistical Computing. Applying Si fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for both high rice yield and brown spot resistance. Thus, steel slags can be considered as a sustainable alternative to agricultural practice. Steel slags can be used in several activities, such as construction and paving, and also in the agricultural sector due to its ability to correct soil acidity, as it contains some nutrients for the plants and also as silicate fertilizer that is capable of providing silicon to the plants. In the Bessemer converter, there is a lining of lime which, in the process of manufacturing the steel, takes up a large percentage of phosphorus, in the form of phosphoric acid. FY2012 using molten slag from the Nishigaya DMS plant in Shizuoka City under a collaborative scheme involving government, academia, and industry Shizuoka City, Shizuoka University, and Nippon Steel & Sumikin Engineering. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. With 80% of the paddy fields in China being located in the subtropics, it is necessary to demonstrate the effects of steel slag application on rice yield and heavy metal immobilization in the subtropical Chinese paddy fields. slag volumes have been reduced on commercial scale from about 140 kg/tonne steel to 60 kg/tonne steel. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. Re-acidification of the soil was a natural soil process, which may result in the liberation of bound metals [47]. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click The ferrugeneous portion of LD-slag can be separated by magnetic separation technique. Application of Fertilizer Made of Steelmaking Slag in the Recovery of Paddy Fields Damaged by the Tsunami of 2011. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil … Silicon is taken up by roots in the form of silicic acid (H4SiO4), and mainly distributed in rice straw (leaf + stem) [2]. Applying Si fertilizer to Si–deficient soil is beneficial for sustained rice production [40–41]. The fertilizer contains 25-30% of soluble silicic acid that boosts photosynthesis in rice plants; and 40-48% of alkalinity which improves soil quality. Yes The enhanced soil pH and soil available Si content may contribute to a decrease the available concentration of heavy metals by reducing metal mobility and bonding metals into more stable fractions. P fertilizers – rock phosphate – bone meal – basic slag The element was discovered in 1669 and was found to be widely distributed in the lithosphere as phosphates. Soil samples were collected both before rice transplanting and after rice harvesting in each rice season. The paddy fields were divided into nine plots (20 m × 12 m in width); 200 g/m2 and 400 g/m2 of fertilizer made of slag were applied to a part of the rice field in 2012, and then the rice cultivation experiment was conducted. The first factor influencing plant available–silicon concentration may be associated with the different weather conditions in the two seasons. In addition to these three components, it also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P2O5, so it has been used for a broad range of agricultural purposes. China is the largest producer of steel in the world, huge amounts of steel slag are produced every year in China [17], but only 10% of the steel slag is recycled [18]. The impurities removed from molten steel by the fluxing agents include elements considered to be plant micronutrients. Daily average temperature was about 8°C higher in the late rice season than in the early rice season. Increase in uptake of P2O5 with steel works slag over 50% more than with TSP and three times more than with gafsa.. (4) The initial Ca content of DS was much lower than that of OS, due to depletion by the desalting operation. The heavy metal contaminated croplands have reached 20 Mha, and most of them are still cultivated [13]. LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. ( Montalvo et al., 2018 ). Cultivation Experiments in the Paddy Fields, 3.1. Slag ― a mixture of silica and calcium, magnesium and iron oxides ― can be used as a fertilizer that can assist in fortifying disease resistance in rice because of its mineral components. After the steel slag is crushed, the qualified crushed steel slag will be fed into the cylinder by the feeder. Steel making slag (also: steel slag) is produced during the conversion of hot metal to crude steel in a basic oxygen furnace or during the melting of scrap in an electric arc furnace. The results of our previous works showed that essential Ca and Si elements were effectively supplied by the dicalcium silicate phase (C2S) while the glassy phase of the CaO–SiO2–FeO system served as an Fe source. A relatively large amount of 13.1 % was used as fertilizer, and the remaining 10.5 % was recycled in metallurgical processes or used in other applications. Citation: Ning D, Liang Y, Liu Z, Xiao J, Duan A (2016) Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil. This result suggests that the soil used had a strong buffering capacity at this pH value range (near neutral). Kyoto University Press and Trans Pacific Press, Kyoto, (2004). All data in figures and tables were shown as means ± SD of three replicates. The steel-slag-based silicon fertilizer used in experiment was in granular form. Upon application of fertilizer made of slag, both Ca and Si concentrations in soil solution increased. In the late rice season, the silicon concentration of rice straw was significantly higher in all the treatments with slag than in the control treatment, with the silicon concentration being 78.7% and 89.3% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. However, total concentrations of heavy metals in soil provide very limited information about their chemical behavior and potential fate [27, 28]. M.  Numata,  N.  Maruoka,  S-j. Silicon application significantly decreased Cd concentration in the xylem sap and Si-mediated detoxification of Cd in maize plants [46]. A. Si content in the stems and leaves of the paddy harvested from each group of plots in 2012 and 2013. There was a high percentage (50–56%) of exchangeable fraction (F1) of cadmium in soil, while application of steel slag decreased the percentage of the exchangeable fraction (F1), but increased the percentage of the reducible (F2) and residual (F4) fractions (Fig 6A and 6B). In the late rice season, application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 200 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased dry weight of straw compared with CK treatment, and equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil significantly increased grain yield, with 14.3% and 16.7% higher in the Si4 and Si5 treatments respectively. 5. K.  Kyuma: Paddy Soil Science. The soil used was sampled from Qiyang, Hunan province of South China, (no specific permissions were required for soil sampling in this location and the field in this study did not involve endangered or protected species). 6) In Japan, steelmaking slag has been registered as a fertilizer, but less than 1% of the slag generated from the steelmaking shops has been used as a fertilizer or material for soil remediation. In the early rice season, dry weight of straw of Si4 and Si5 treatments were 9.52% and 11.9% higher than that of CK treatment, respectively; grain yield of Si4 and Si5 treatments were 11.9% and 13.9% higher than that of CK treatment, respectively. The application of fertilizer made of slag increased the yield by approximately 7–9% without statistically significant differences, not only in 2012 but also in 2013. A representative sample of up to 0.5 g was digested in 9 mL of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) and 3 mL of concentrated hydrofluoric acid for 15 minutes in a suitable laboratory microwave system.

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