However, it is important that at least one of the resistances be sensitive to a change in the physical parameter. The resistive transducer element works on the principle that the resistance of the element is directly proportional to the length of the conductor and inversely proportional to the area of the conductor. The voltage existing at a point between resistors 26, 28 is supplied as a positive input to summing point 33. For example, the first and second excitation means are shown as being sine wave generators. 17. In another aspect, the invention provides an improved method of producing a digital output signal proportional to a change in a sensed physical parameter, which method comprising the steps of: providing a first pair of series-connected resistors; providing a second pair of series-connected resistors; arranging the resistors such that the electrical resistance of at least one of the resistors is variable in response to a change in the sensed parameter; applying a first exciting alternating voltage at a particular frequency across the first pair; applying a second exciting alternating voltage at the same frequency across the second pair; the first and second exciting voltages having identical waveforms (i.e., as to general waveshape and frequency), but being shifted relative to one another by a constant phase angle (φ); vector-summing the voltage existing at a point between the resistors of the first pair with the voltage existing a point between the resistors of the second pair to provide a vector-summed output signal; and counting the time difference between the occurrence of a distinguishing event (e.g., a zero crossing) of the vector-summed signal and the occurrence of a like distinguishing event of the exciting voltage referred to; thereby to provide a digital output signal proportional to the change in the sensed physical parameter. When combined with basic electronic circuitry, the sensor detects the change in presence or proximity of ferrous objects. 2 wire 4-20mA or 3 wire 0-20mA: 1. For example, a linear variable differential transformer ("LVDT") typically has a primary coil that is inductively coupled to two secondary or output coils via an intermediate movable core member. They can be used for measuring various physical quantities like temperature, pressure, displacement, force, vibrations etc. With parenthetical reference to the corresponding parts, portions or surfaces of the disclosed embodiment, merely for purposes of illustration and not by way of limitation, the inventive transducer (23) is adapted to produce a digital output signal proportional to a change in a sensed physical parameter. A strain gauge measures the external force (pressure) applied to a fine wire. 8. Accordingly, the general object of this invention is to provide an improved transducer for indicating a change in a sensed physical parameter. FIG. The pulse-width-modulated wave could then be convened to a digital signal by counting the relative pulse width times by means of a pulse width counter with a clock reference, in much the same way as an "LVPT" output can be digitized. The transducer also includes sine wave generators (31, 32) for applying first and second sine waves across the first and second pairs, respectively. These transducers are usually used as the secondary transducers, where the output from the primary mechanical transducer acts as the input for the variable resistance transducer. Variable capacitance pressure gage - Principle of operation: Distance between two parallel plates is varied by an externally applied MARINE MIDLAND BANK, AGENT, NEW YORK, Free format text: (e.g. ... Q6. As used in the following description, the terms "horizontal", "vertical", "left", "right", "up" and "down", as well as adjectival and adverbial derivatives thereof (e.g., "horizontally", "rightwardly", "upwardly", etc.) A method as set forth in claim 10 wherein said waveform is a sine wave. ANSWER: A. Inductive transducer . A wide variety of variable resistive load bank options are available to you, such as brand name, rated power, and temperature coefficient. The voltages between the resistors of each pair are vector-summed. Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)  LVDT is an inductive type passive transducer. 1 is a schematic view of a prior art constant-phase resistive transducer in which the output voltage of a d.c. bridge circuit was summed with a triangular reference voltage to shift the zero crossing of the resultant waveform as a function of a change in a sensed physical parameter. The capacitive transducer consists of two parallel metal plates that are separated by the dielectric material such as air. Resistive Sensors 1. SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:MOOG INC.;REEL/FRAME:009748/0230, Free format text: Capacitive Transducer. Other types of devices include variable-phase output signal devices, such as resolvers. 2. The outputs of these coils are coupled to an output coil through the position of the core. Transducer - MCQs with answers Q1. Introduction A resistive sensor is a transducer or electromechanical device that converts a mechanical change such as displacement into an electrical signal that can be monitored after conditioning. However, these first and second exciting voltages are phase-shifted relative to one another by a constant phase angle. With respect to the resistive bridge, the drawing indicates that all four resistances are variable. These and other objects and advantages will become apparent from the foregoing and ongoing written specification, the drawings, and the appended claims. a counter operatively arranged to count the time difference between the occurrence of a distinguishing waveform event of said vector-summed signal and the occurrence of a like distinguishing waveform event of the exciting voltage referred to; whereby said time difference count will be a digital output signal proportional to the change in said sensed physical parameter.  It is also known as Linear Variable Differential Transducer. Working of Resistive Transducer: The most commonly used type of transducer is variable resistance transducer. MOOG INC., NEW YORK, Free format text: A transducer for producing a digital output signal proportional to a change in a sensed physical parameter, comprising: a first pair of series-connected resistors; a second pair of series-connected resistors; the electrical resistance of at least one of said resistors being variable in response to a change in said sensed parameter; first excitation means for applying a first exciting alternating voltage at a particular frequency across said first pair; second excitation means for applying a second exciting alternating voltage at said frequency across said second pair; said first and second exciting voltages having identical waveforms but being shifted relative to one another by a constant phase angle; summing means for vector-summing the voltage existing at a point between the resistors of the first pair with the voltage existing at a point between the resistors of the second pair to provide a vector-summed output signal; and. A method as set forth in claim 10 wherein said waveform is in the form of a triangular wave. Summing point 18 provides the summed signal to a pulse width modulator 20, which converts the superimposed waveform to a pulse-width-modulated square-wave, as illustrated in the associated waveform diagram. The resistive transducer is designed by considering the variation of the length, area and resistivity of the metal. transducers. It is available in various sizes and having a high range of resistance. Under this, transducers can be categorized as: Active Transducers.  It converts translational or linear displacement into electrical voltage. 1 schematically depicts a prior art resistive transducer, generally indicated at 10. A transducer as set forth in claim 1 and further comprising a comparator for comparing the phase angle of the vector-summed output signal with the phase angle of either exciting voltage and for producing a pulse-width-modulated square-wave output signal at the excitation frequency. Therefore, while the presently-preferred embodiment of the improved transducer has been shown and described, and several modifications thereof discussed, persons skilled in this art will readily appreciate that various additional changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, as defined and differentiated by the following claims. Resistive sensors are among the most common in instrumentation. FIG. The first and second voltages may be phase-shifted by 90°, or by some other angle. counting the time difference between the occurrence of a distinguishing waveform event of said vector-summed signal and the occurrence of a like distinguishing waveform event of said the exciting voltage referred to; thereby to produce a digital output signal proportional to the change in said sensed physical parameter. 5. When a variable resistor is used as a potential divider by using 3 terminals it is called a potentiometer. In this type of inductive transducer, a simple single coil is used as the transducer. PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362. A method as set forth in claim 10 wherein the amplitudes of said exciting voltages are the same. The present invention broadly provides an improved variable-phase resistive transducer, and a method of operating same. Another object is to provide an improved transducer that produces a digital output signal. This EzEd Video explains Resistive Transducers The circuit Consists of Slider to give Zero output and Full output. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. An a.c. current is provided to the driving coil. The resistive transducer can work both as the primary as well as the secondary transducer. The electrical resistance of at least one of these resistors is variable in response to a change in the sensed parameter. 2 is a schematic view of the improved variable-phase resistive transducer, showing the application of two phase-shifted sinusoidal-like exciting voltages to separate series-connected resistor pairs, with the voltages at the nodes between the resistors of each pair being vector-summed and convened to a pulse-width-modulated square-wave signal, and the time difference between the occurrence of a … A resistive transducer is mainly used in the calculation of temperature, displacement, pressure, force. Pressure transducers with a transmitter current output signal e.g. Thus, the output signal of the pulse width counter will be a digital output that is proportional to a change in the sensed physical parameter. 2 is a schematic view of the improved variable-phase resistive transducer, showing the application of two phase-shifted sinusoidal-like exciting voltages to separate series-connected resistor pairs, with the voltages at the nodes between the resistors of each pair being vector-summed and convened to a pulse-width-modulated square-wave signal, and the time difference between the occurrence of a distinguishing event (e.g., the zero crossing, a point in time when the value of the voltage reaches zero, etc.) simply refer to the orientation of the illustrated structure as the particular drawing figure faces the reader. A transducer (23) for producing a digital output signal proportional to a change in a sensed physical parameter includes first and second pairs of series-connected resistors (24, 25 or 26, 28). 6. Required fields are marked *. The primary transducer changes the physical quantities into a mechanical signal, and secondary transducer directly transforms it into an electrical signal. The output of summing point 33 is provided to a phase comparator 35, which compares the phase angle of the vector-summed voltage with the phase angle of the reference waveform, shown as being tapped off from the output of the second sine wave generator 32, and produces a pulse-width-modulated square-wave output signal. 16. 9. •The variable resistance transducers are also called as resistive transducers or resistive sensors. As indicated above, many closed-loop control systems are digital in nature. Your email address will not be published. RESISTIVE TRANSDUCER• Material in which the resistance due to a change in some physical phenomenon.• Potentiometer-it consists of a resistance element provided with a sliding contact called wiper.• Movement can be in rotational and translational or combination of both. The resistive transducer can work both as the primary as well as the secondary transducer. This pulse-width-modulated signal difference is then supplied to a pulse width counter 36, which counts the time difference between the occurrence of a distinguishing event (i.e., zero crossing at time tO) of the reference signal and the occurrence of a like distinguishing event (i.e., zero crossing at time TS) of the vector-summed signal at the rate determined by clock 38. 11. liquid-containing cells wherein an electrical potential is produced or varied upon the application of stress using resistance strain gauges, Measuring circuits therefor involving digital counting, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NINTZEL, ARTHUR;REEL/FRAME:008043/0142, SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:MOOG INC.;REEL/FRAME:009748/0230, PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362, Transducer outputting digital signal proportional to detected variation of parameter, Resistor converter with variable phase and method for its operation, Continuous calcination of mixed metal oxides, Carrier frequency measuring method and apparatus, Audible alert device and method for the manufacture and programming of the same, Testing circuit for measuring a frequency of signal output from clock generator, Secondary power meter for quarter-cycle power measurement and invoicing method, Food item scales, methods for calibrating same, and methods for determining the weight of food items, Impedance measuring device and detection method, Phase sensitive strain gage amplifier rectifier circuit, Conductivity measuring instrument having linearization means and a digital read-out, Transducer for directly converting mechanical displacement to phase information, Method and apparatus for analog rotation sensor, Shaft failure monitoring system using angled rotating teeth and phase detection, Magnetic field sensor adjustment method, magnetic field sensor adjustment device and magnetic field sensor, Transducer without magnetic core for contactless measurement of a current, Arrangement for the contactless determination of the angle of rotation of a rotatable component, Reduced offset high accuracy induced current absolute position transducer, Magnetoresistive sensor with reduced output signal jitter and temperature compensation, Apparatus for measuring at least one state variable of a brushless direct-current motor, Detection of passing magnetic articles while periodically adapting detection thresholds to changing amplitudes of the magnetic field, Method for determining a rotation angle and/or an angle differential from phase signals, 360 Degree linear variable phase transformer, Expanded range monopole torque measuring system, Device for determining the position of rotating shafts, Magnetic position detection apparatus having two magnetic recording medium tracks with magnetoresistors arranged in a bridge circuit so as to eliminate even order harmonic distortion, Device for measuring the angle and/or the angular velocity of a rotatable body and/or the torque acting upon said body, Method and apparatus for detecting low rotational speeds using a resolver, Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees, Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee, Information on status: patent discontinuation. The following are the advantages of the resistive transducer. The phase comparator is arranged to sense and determine the phase of the vector-sum signal with respect to the reference waveform.  It measures force in terms of displacement of ferromagnetic core of a transformer. of the vector-summed signal with the occurrence of a like distinguishing event of the exciting voltage being counted to produce a digital output signal. The output of the transducer is a digital signal proportional to a change in the sensed physical parameter. Only one resistor of the bridge need be sensitive to a change in the parameter. Information on such an LVPT is shown in certain literature of NWL Control Systems, 2220 Palmer Avenue, Kalamazoo, Mich. 49001, a division of Pneumo Corp. Additional details and improvements of this basic device may be shown or described in U.S. Pat. From a structure point-of-view, this appears to be, in large part, a conventional LVDT, albeit operated in a reverse manner. ρ – the resistivity of the conductor in materials in ohm meter. The dashed lines connecting the various resistors schematically indicate that these resistors are varied in a related or complimentary manner. The measurement of the physical quantity is quite difficult. The electrical resistance of at least one of these resistors is variable in response to a change in the sensed parameter. Difference Between Transducer & Inverse Transducer, Difference Between Concave and Convex Lens, Armature Reaction in a Synchronous Machine, Two Wattmeter Method of Power Measurement, Difference Between Conduction and Convection, Difference Between Circuit Switching and Packet Switching, Difference Between Static and Kinetic Friction, Difference Between Ductility and Malleability, Difference Between Physical and Chemical Change, Difference Between Alpha, Beta and Gamma Particles, Difference Between Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes, Difference Between Electromagnetic Wave and Matter Wave. A variable resistor is in essence an electro-mechanical transducer and normally works by sliding a contact (wiper) over a resistive element. The present invention relates generally to the field of transducers, and, more particularly, to an improved transducer that is arranged to produce a digital output signal in response to a change in a sensed physical parameter, and to an improved method of operating such a transducer. The resistive transducer is used for measuring the physical quantities like temperature, displacement, vibration etc. FIG. Variable-phase resistive transducer, and method of operating same. It modifies the inductance of the circuitas well as the equivalent output. The variable resistance transducers are also called as resistive transducers or resistive sensors. A transducer as set forth in claim 1 wherein each of said waveforms is in the form of a triangular wave. Q7. 13. For example photovoltaic cell in which light energy is converted into electrical energy. Both the AC and DC, current or voltage is appropriate for the measurement of variable resistance. The movement of the slider changes the value of the resistive element of the transducer which is measured by the voltage source E. The displacement of the slider is converted into an electrical signal. Included in this category of transducers are strain gauges and moving contacts (slidewire variable resistors). There are many devices for sensing and determining the position of a movable member. While analog strain gauges have been widely applied for many years, the reliability and performance of semiconductor strain gauges has now increased to the point where they may now be used for many critical sensing applications. Accordingly, it would generally be desirable to provide an accurate transducer that is sensitive to a physical parameter, and that directly produces a digital output. The sliding contacts are placed on the resistive element. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms "inwardly" and "outwardly" refer to the orientation of a surface relative to its axis of elongation, or axis or rotation, as appropriate. The change in resistance is measured by the ac or dc measuring devices. Figure 1 By using one of the fixed connections and the sliding connection a resistive element may be made whose effectively length varies with the position of the slider, but whose resistivity and cross-section area remain constant. 3. The summing point output will provide a vector-summed output signal, as shown by the associated waveform diagram, which illustrates the resultant vector sum 34 of two equal signals, and a similar resultant 34' for unequal inputs, and the associated phase angles φ and φ'. to understand the working principle, consider a conductor rod. FIG. DPS300 User Switchable Pressure Range, Volts or Current Output Low DP Sensor A method as set forth in claim 10 and further comprising the additional step of comparing the phase angle of the vector-summed output signal with the phase angle of either exciting voltage and for producing a pulse-width-modulated square-wave output signal at the excitation frequency. The improved transducer broadly includes: a first pair of series-connected resistors (24, 25); a second pair of series-connected resistors (26, 28), the electrical resistance of at least one of the resistors being variable in response to a change in the sensed parameter; first excitation means (31) for applying a first exciting alternating voltage at a particular frequency across the first pair; second excitation means (32) for applying a second exciting alternating voltage at the same frequency across the second pair; the first and second exciting voltages having identical waveforms (i.e., as to general waveshape and frequency), but being shifted relative to one another by a constant phase angle (φ); summing means (33) for vector-summing the voltage existing at a point between the resistors of the first pair with the voltage existing at a point between the resistors of the second pair to provide a vector-summed output signal; and a counter (36) operatively arranged to count the time difference between the occurrence of a distinguishing event (e.g., the point at which the waveform reaches or crosses zero, etc.) The resistive transducers are also known as resistive sensors or variable resistance transducers. The process of variation in resistance is widely used in the industrial applications. The summing point is simply shown as providing the vector-sum of the voltages intermediate the resistances of each pair. Active transducers … Alibaba.com offers 1,104 variable resistive load bank products. When only two terminals are used, it functions as a variable resistance and is called a rheostat. However, the second excitation voltage is phase-shifted relative to the first excitation voltage by a known and constant phase angle (φ), such as 90°. A battery 15 is adapted to provide a d.c. potential to the nodes between resistors 11, 13 and 12, 14, respectively. This output time count is inherently a digital value. A method as set forth in claim 10 wherein said distinguishing event is a point in time when the value of said voltage reaches zero. The slider moves horizontally. Example sentences with "variable-resistance transducer", translation memory add example en 21/ 00 Variable - resistance transducers (gaseous-resistance transducers H 04 R 23/00; magneto-resistive transducers H 04 R 23/00) 21/ 02 . A possible approach, utilizing well known prior art, would typically be to start with the conventional d.c. signal output of a strain-gage bridge excited from a d.c. source, and to generate a pulse-width modulated waveform in the conventional way by summing the bridge output signal with a reference triangular wave to shift its zero crossing time. In any event, the phase comparator determines the phase angle difference between these two signals, and provides a pulse-width-modulated square-wave output reflective of this difference. The variable resistance transducers are one of the most commonly used types of transducers. Resistive Type of Sensors - Their Analysis and Applications Debasmit Das 10115039 Batch : E3 2. The capacitive transducer works on the principle of variable capacitances. MEASURING FORCE, STRESS, TORQUE, WORK, MECHANICAL POWER, MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, OR FLUID PRESSURE, Measuring force or stress, in general by measuring variations in ohmic resistance of solid materials or of electrically-conductive fluids; by making use of electrokinetic cells, i.e. These transducers work in both primary as well as secondary. At the outset, it should be clearly understood that like reference numerals are intended to identify the same structural elements, portions or surfaces consistently throughout the several drawing figures, as such elements, portions or surfaces may be further described or explained by the entire written specification of which this detailed description is an integral part. About 13% of these are Testing Equipment. However, this is not invariable. 1. In the preferred embodiment, that phase angle is 90°. It measures temperature, pressure, displacement, force, vibrations, etc. The schematic symbol, of the transducer is as shown in figure 1(a) and the TK294K in figure 1(b). of the vector-summed signal and the occurrence of a like distinguishing event of the exciting voltage referred to; whereby the count of the time difference will be a digital output signal proportional to the change in the sensed physical parameter. Thus, the d.c. signal supplied to the summing point, when added to the supplied triangular waveform, shifts the nominal zero crossing from time tO to a new time tS, as shown in the associated waveform diagram. These transducers are most frequently used for calculating different physical quantities like pressure, vibration, temperature, force, and displacement. The time between zero crossings of the vector-summed and reference signals is then counted to provide the digital output of the transducer. Core of a triangular wave, that phase angle could be some angle other 90°... 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