Yaniv Z, Dudai N. Medicinal and aromatic plants of the Middle-East, vol. LH, leaf hexane; LEA, leaf ethyl acetate; LC, leaf chloroform; LM, leaf methanol; LW, leaf water; SH, stem hexane; SEA, stem ethyl acetate; SC, stem chloroform; SM, stem methanol; SW, stem water. The control cells were incubated with DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS, 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 mg/ml streptomycin (all Gibco; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) for 72 h at 37°C. The results of this research support the hypothesis that differences in phenolic acids and flavonoid synthesis could be related to increasing light intensity at the three different locations (from North-east to North). Furthermore, S. crispahas potential in treating cancer, as evidenced in previous studies. Part of The selectivity index (SI) in the present study was calculated from the IC50 of the extracts in normal rat kidney cells (NRK-52E) vs. cancer cells. Acanthaceae. Increased sub-G and S phases were noted following the treatment; however, no significant differences were identified. 2C). Furthermore, S. crispa has potential in treating cancer, as evidenced in previous studies. The amount of TFC was between 3.28 and 7.44 mg QE/g DM and, the different locations and solvents significantly influenced the TFC. The health claims of herbal medicine need to be verified scientifically, although the experience obtained from their traditional use over the years should not be ignored (WHO 1993). Optical density of control: absorbance of cells treated with 0.1% DMSO medium. 2006;86(8):1225–31. 2D). Previously, it was reported that aqueous extracts of S. crispus leaves (25 mg/mL) were cytotoxic for the liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Hep G2), colon carcinoma cell line (HCT116), ductal breast epithelial tumor cell line (T-47D), lung cancer cell Line (NCI-H23), and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) with IC50 values of >200, >200, >200, >200, and 120.7 μg/mL, respectively [8]. Goldstein MS. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The SH extract induced morphological changes in HepG-2 and MDA-MB-231 cells, and significantly delayed cell population doubling time. 2002;79(3):379–81. It is apparent from Table 2 that the solubility of polyphenolic compounds is higher in aqueous solvents than that in ethanol. Complications of chemotherapy for prostate cancer. Widakowich C, de Castro G, Jr, de Azambuja E, Dinh P, Awada A. 2014. p. 42–6. 2007;101(1):410–8. trans-Cinnamic acid at a concentration of 0.44 mg/g DM was detected in extracts of leaves from Penang but not in the extracts of the leaves from the other two locations. Muslim et al. The cell viability was determined using the formula: Optical density of sample = absorbance of cells treated with extract - absorbance of cells treated with 0.1% DMSO medium. Int J Canc Res. Plant Cell Environ. The residue was washed thrice with 5 ml of 80 % aqueous methanol. Previous studies have revealed that hexane is useful for the extraction of stigmasterol (32–34) and β-sitosterol (33–36). It is known as pokok pecah kaca or pokok pecah beling in Malaysia, and pecah beling, enyoh kilo, kecibeling or kejibeling in Indonesia. Shen Y, White E. p53-dependent apoptosis pathways. Acetate buffer (25 mL) and TPTZ (2.5 mL) were mixed (FRAP solution), and 2.5 mL FeCl3 added. Karimi E, Jaafar HZ, Ghasemzadeh A, Ibrahim MH. The assay was conducted as follows: Cancer cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a density of 1 × 104 cells/well in 100 μL RPMI. The highest kaempferol (0.56 mg/g DM) and naringenin (0.92 mg/g DM) content was identified in the extracts of S. crispus leaves collected from Kelantan. Rao Α, Gurfinkel D. The bioactivity of saponins: triterpenoid and steroidal glycosides. Cambridge, UK: MIT Press; 1980. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. In conclusion, S. crispa extracts were revealed to exert strong anti-cancer effects on liver and breast carcinoma cells. Caspase-8 activity in HepG-2 liver cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells following treatment with Strobilanthes crispa stem hexane extract for 72 h. The cancer cells were treated with the extract at their respective half maximal inhibitory concentrations extract (38.8 µg/ml for HepG-2 cells; 42.5 µg/ml for MDA-MB-231 cells), and the fluorescent expression of caspase-8 was measured. WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005. Cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 media containing 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS). The chromatographic system conditions were set as follows: mobile phase, 0.03 M orthophosphoric acid (A) and methanol HPLC grade (B); detector, UV 360 nm; column, C18 column (5.0 μm, 4.6 mm inner diameter [ID] × 250 mm); column oven temperature, 35 °C; and flow rate, 1.0 mL/min. These contradicting observations may be due to the differences in the geographical areas from which the plants were collected. The caspase activity in SH-treated cells was measured according to the manufacturer's protocol. Lu J, Papp LV, Fang J, Rodriguez-Nieto S, Zhivotovsky B, Holmgren A. Inhibition of mammalian thioredoxin reductase by some flavonoids: implications for myricetin and quercetin anticancer activity. 2011;16(6):4438–50. Article  The cell cycle analysis demonstrated that HepG-2 cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase, indicating that SH inhibited liver cancer cell growth through cell cycle modulation. This suggests that the anti-cancer compounds are extractable by hexane, a hydrophobic solvent. An MTT assay was used in the present study to screen the plant extracts for their anti-cancer properties. Norfarizan-Hanoon N, Asmah R, Rokiah M, Fauziah O, Faridah H. Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant enzymes effect of Strobilanthes crispus juice in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male and female rats. Strobilanthes crispus is traditionally used as a folklore medicinal plant in Malaysia and Indonesia as an antidiabetic, diuretic, or antilithic agent as well as a laxative to treat constipation [3]. 3 demonstrates the effect of SH on HepG-2 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. Black PH, Garbutt LD. Apoptosis in cancer: From pathogenesis to treatment. Tanaman yang umum dijadikan pembatas kebun atau pagar ini memiliki nama ilmiah Strobilanthes crispa. Phenolic acids identified in ethanol extracts of dried leaves of S. crispus included p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gentinic acid, ferulic acid, and syryngic acid, and the alkaloids caffeine and tannin are also present [6]. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits. Yoo KM, Lee CH, Lee H, Moon B, Lee CY. The flavonoid compounds identified in leaves extracts of S. crispus included naringenin, (+)-catechin, kaempferol rutin, myricetin, apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-epicatechin [16]. The TSC increased by about 16.4 % (Penang), 13.15 % (Selangor), and 15.2 % (Kelantan) when an aqueous solvent was used rather than ethanol. Bars represent standard error of the means. Aqueous extracts of S. crispus leaves (20–640 μg/mL) collected from three different locations (Penang, Selangor, and Kelantan) were tested for anticancer activity against the HeLa cells (Fig. J Chromatogr A. 2005;105(3):319–30. Leaves extract (100 μL) and deionized water (300 μL) was added to 3 mL of the FRAP solution and incubated for 30 min at 37 °C in the dark water bath. After 24 h, the medium was removed and the cells were incubated for 3 days with RPMI in the presence or absence of various concentrations of S. crispus leaves extract (test extracts were prepared in 0.1 % Dimethyl sulfoxide and serially diluted with media to obtain appropriate concentrations). de Melo Gomes J, de Sousa Araújo TA, de Almeida e Castro Thijan Nobre V, de Vasconcelos Cabral Lyra D, do Desterro Rodrigues M, do Nascimento Carneiro S, de Amorim Cavalcanti EL, de Albuquerque UP. BMSc I01/09 (03) 2011]. Solutions were refluxed  for 2 h at 65 °C, then cooled and filtered through Whatman filter paper (No. Yaacob NS, Hamzah N, Kamal Nik Mohamed NN, Abidin Zainal SA, Lai CS, Navaratnam V, Norazmi MN. Dose-response curve of Strobilanthes crispa extracts on HepG-2 liver cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. HepG-2 cells treated with extracts derived from the (A) leaves and (B) stems of Strobilanthes crispa. CAS  A 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine When HepG-2 cells were exposed to SH at the IC50, no significant differences in the cell population doubling time were observed. The medium was removed and 100 μL DMSO was added and the absorbance measured using a micro plate reader at 540 nm followed by the calculation of percentage viability. 2010;11(10):3885–97. 2B). Results were expressed as milligram gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DM. the display of certain parts of an article in other eReaders. Potent inhibitory action of red wine polyphenols on human breast cancer cells. Food Chem. Chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oil from Strobilanthes crispus and Lawsonia inermis. Malay states by the Malay community similar to vegetables ( salad ) and!, Ahmad I, Taufiq-Yap YH rate associated with cancer ( 28.... 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