Watershed is also known as drainage basin or catchment area. Watershed management basically refers to efficient management and conservation of surface and groundwater resources with community participation. Watershed aims to build the capacity of civil society organisations in six countries: Kenya, Uganda, Mali, Ghana, Bangladesh, India and also at international level, for evidence-based lobbying and advocacy on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) issues. Elaborate it with suitable examples? Land and water conservation practices, those made within agricultural 1elds like construction of contour bunds, graded bunds, 1eld (i) Agricultural sector as irrigation is essential to enhance agricultural productivity. However, in future, with development, the share of industrial sector in the country is likely to increase. Explain any three reasons. Elaborate it with suitable examples. A very small proportion of fresh water is available for human use. Answer: It is also easy to construct wells and tube wells here. Watershed management has transformed this barren slope to a green meadow in just two years. The states like Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast surface water resources in these lagoons and lakes. Question 2. What is the Importance of Natural Resources? Study the diagram given below and answer the questions that follow: (CBSE 2011) Tamil Nadu has made water harvesting structures in the houses compulsory. Along with the NCERT Solutions for the 16th chapter, we have also included management of natural resources class 10 important questions. Water flow in a river depends on size of its catchment area or river basin and rainfall within its catchment area. It is the process of guiding and co-ordinating use of land and water resources in a watershed. What are the implications of using groundwater in drought-prone areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu? Modules vary in the time they take to complete, from ½ hour to two hours. Water used for washing vehicle can also be used for gardening. Learn Science with Notes and NCERT Solutions, Next: What are the Advantages of Water Stored in the Ground?→. Watershed: Definition: “Watershed can be defined as a unit of area covers all the […] Question 2. Of the €200-million estimated budget for this sector, €100 million is for the pressurized irrigation projects and €100 million for the watershed management projects. Question 9. Conservation practices can be divided into two main categories: 1) in-situ and 2) ex-situ management. Why there is a need to conserve water resources? (i) Therefore, it helps in multi-cropping. Availability: Water resources are excess in some regions such as West Bengal whereas it is deficient in other parts of the country like Rajasthan and peninsular India. Rain water harvesting is a method to capture and store rainwater for various uses. (Foreign 2011) Such matters deteriorate the quality of water and render it unfit for human use. Water constitutes a large proportion of human body. Major sources of surface water are rivers, lakes, ponds and tanks. Usage: Underground water resources could be used in Northern India whereas in Gujarat, Maharashtra, West Bengal, it increases the concentration of arsenic, fluoride and salinity in the soil. From the above diagrams, it is clear that, in both the cases it is the agricultural sector that uses maximum share of both surface and groundwater. Answer: In which rivers precipitation rates are high and what are its effects? (a) Irrigation. The Web site offers a variety of self-paced training modules that represent a basic and broad introduction to the watershed management field. Answer: Answer: Question 1. It is said that the water resources in India have been depleting very fast. Almost all the major rivers of the country are inter-state rivers and their waters are shared by, two or more than two states. The importance of watershed management in sustainable development has been identified and many programmes both by government and NGOs have been launched for the watershed management. Answer: Answer: Sustainable development is the development, which fulfills the needs of present generation without depriving the future generations from the benefits arising from the resources. A system to evolve the benchmarks for water uses for different purposes, i.e., water footprints, and water auditing be developed to ensure efficient use. Answer: Question 8. These are rivers, lakes, ponds, and tanks. Answer: Watershed Academy Web, is the program's distance learning program. Answer: The expanse of these rivers are broader and larger and receive heavy rainfall. Water Resources and Watershed Management By Dr. Harish Gupta | University College of Engineering, Osmania University, Hyderabad This four (4) credit, 15 weeks MOOCs course is being offered for Post Graduate students of Sciences and other faculties. Watershed uses the same employment law resources, knowledge and people to continue to offer industry recognised expertise. Sometimes, these pollutants also seep down and pollute groundwater. He provides courses for Maths and Science at Teachoo. Reasons for conservation and management of water resources are: Question 2. Watershed management not only conserves the entire ecosystem of an area but also empowers the people by making them socially and economically self reliant as it has community participation as its vital component. The rate of groundwater utilization is very high in the river basins of north west India and parts of south India, where the rain water percolates down easily through the soft soils and recharge underground water table. The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. Increasing demand for agricultural sector, domestic use due to urbanisation and industrialisation & rise in population. The success of watershed development largely depends upon community participation. This dearth of utilizable water has been cause of several disputes in India at local, state and national levels. Watershed management approaches are evolving throughout the country and are being used to solve tough problems. Q.What does watershed management mean and aim at? The states like Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast surface water resources in legumes and lake also. Question 4. Haryali is a watershed development project which aims at enabling the rural population to conserve water for drinking, irrigation, fisheries and afforestation. All the green revolution crops are water intensive, hence the demand for water in these states is very high. Use of water of lesser quality such as reclaimed waste-water would be an attractive option for industries. It helps n the economic development of the country. Question 1. The availability from surface water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869 cubic km. Question 7. Answer: Question 1. Of the total net irrigated area 76.1 per cent in Punjab and 51.3 per cent in Haryana are irrigated through wells and tube wells. A youth group called Tarun Mandal was formed which worked to ban the dowry system, caste discrimination and other social evils.Cultivation of water intensive crops and practice of open grazing were banned. This results in pollution of water whereby the quality of water deteriorates affecting aquatic systems. There are various agencies which run different watershed management programs. Answer: (ii) (a) People prefer to live in areas with easy accessibility productivity. The Cauvery water dispute between Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) is implemented by Department of Land Resources of Ministry of Rural Development. The total utilizable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km. Answer: Drinking water, Irrigation, Hydro power, Navigation, Industrial and Other uses. Question 3. Payment Communication: In response to the Coronavirus (COVID-19) public health pandemic, the Department of Watershed Management (DWM) has implemented actions to adjust its operations and services to ensure the safety and health of employees and members of the public. During the planning process, data are collected to describe the current conditions of the watershed, potential management strategies to address watershed impairments are considered, and a final timeline is developed. Some examples are— Answer: Due to above reasons, we need to conserve water resources. Water, after meeting the pre-emptive needs for safe drinking water and sanitation, achieving food security, supporting poor people dependent on agriculture for their livelihood and high priority allocation for minimum ecosystem needs, be treated as economic good so as to promote its conservation and efficient use. Watershed management implies rational utilisation of land and water resources for optimum and sustained production, with the minimum of hazard to natural resources. 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