His wild inventiveness and frank eclecticism were tempered by his almost unerring sense of color and design. Home / Exhibitions / Art Fairs / Viewing Rooms / Movies / Artists / Publications / Information / 1925 Born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, Texas on October 22nd to Dora Carolina Matson and Ernest Rauschenberg. , Rauschenberg's approach was sometimes called "Neo-Dadaist," a label he shared with the painter Jasper Johns. The 1970s also marked a return to assemblage as Rauschenberg embarked on the Spreads (1975-82) and Scales series (1977-81). When he returned to the United States, he continued his experiments in paintings with the Red series in 1953, which featured varied surface textures like the Black series (1951), and also incorporated newsprint. , In the 1990s a retrospective was held at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York (1997), which traveled to museums in Houston, Cologne, and Bilbao through 1999. In 1970, he co-founded Change, Inc., which helped struggling artists pay their medical bills. He worked until his death on May 12, 2008, from heart failure. In 1990, the Whitney Museum of American Art gave Rauschenberg a retrospective, accompanied by a smaller show at the Corcoran Gallery of his earlier work from the 1950s. In 1986, Rauschenberg received the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. Rauschenberg left for Europe and North Africa to travel with Cy Twombly - a fellow student in the Art Students League and later an important Conceptual artist, with whom he was also romantically involved at the time. During his life, he was noted in the pop art movement. He was born as Milton Ernest Rauschenberg. From 1970, Rauschenberg worked from his home and studio in Captiva, Florida. At the peak of his career, he was awarded the Biennale's first prize for painting in 1964, marking the first year this prize was awarded to an American. , In 1961, Rauschenberg explored a similar conceptual approach by presenting an idea as the artwork itself. Robert Rauschenberg was a prominent member of the American Post-War avant-garde.  The White Paintings were shown at Eleanor Ward's Stable Gallery in New York in fall 1953. Rauschenberg used everyday white house paint and paint rollers to create smooth, unembellished surfaces which at first appear as blank canvas.  He was drafted into the United States Navy in 1944. He regarded red as "the most difficult color" with which to paint, and accepted the challenge by dripping, pasting, and squeezing layers of red pigment directly onto canvas grounds that included patterned fabric, newspaper, wood, and nails. The imageless simplicity of the Jammer series is a striking contrast with the image-filled Hoarfrosts and the grittiness of his earliest works made in New York City. One of the key Neo-Dada movement artists, his experimental approach expanded the traditional boundaries of art, opening up … (1998). He was born 22nd October 1925 and died on 12th May 2008. Rauschenberg's interest in the promise of technology led him to co-found Experiments in Art and Technology(E.A.T.)  His father worked for Gulf States Utilities, a light and power company. Working in a wide range of subjects, styles, materials, and techniques, Rauschenberg has been called a forerunner of essentially every postwar movement since Abstract Expressionism. In 2010 Studio Painting (1960‑61), one of Rauschenberg's Combines originally estimated at $6 million to $9 million, was bought from the collection of Michael Crichton for $11 million at Christie's, New York. The flat white canvases were influenced by their surroundings, reflecting shadows of people and the time of day. Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement.  He had a younger sister named Janet Begneaud. The first works he created in his new studio were Cardboards (1971–72) and Early Egyptians (1973–74), for which he relied on locally sourced materials such as cardboard and sand. The foundation for Conceptual art in large measure lies in Rauschenberg's Dada-based belief that the artist had the authority to determine the definition of art. in 1966 with Billy Kluver of Bell Laboratories, which encouraged collaboration between engineers and artists. The formalist view of the 1960s was later refuted by critic Leo Steinberg, who said that each Combine was “a receptor surface on which objects are scattered, on which data is entered. Born with the name Milton Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, Texas, Robert Rauschenberg became one of the major artists of his generation and is credited along with Jasper Johns of breaking the stronghold of Abstract Expressionism*. At Black Mountain College, Rauschenberg experimented with a variety of artistic mediums including printmaking, drawing, photography, painting, sculpture, and theatre; his works often featured some combination of these. In 1998, the Vatican commissioned a work by Rauschenberg in honor of the Jubilee year 2000 to be displayed in the Padre Pio Liturgical Hall, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy. Robert Rauschenberg explores the intersection of everyday life objects and art in his paintings, sculptures, and prints.  In 1990, Rauschenberg created the Robert Rauschenberg Foundation (RRF) to promote awareness of the causes he cared about, such as world peace, the environment and humanitarian issues. Overview: Life and Art. Rauschenberg himself said that they were affected by ambient conditions, "so you could almost tell how many people are in the room." Rauschenberg began to include objects in the surface of his paintings, from parasols to parts of a man's undershirt. Robert Milton Ernest Rauschenberg (n.22 octombrie 1925 în Port Arthur, statul Texas - d. 12 mai 2008) a fost un artist american, important lider al artei americane contemporane.. Biografie. He was a painter, graphic artist and a sculptor best known for his “combines” which were combinations of both paintings and sculptures. He earned an early retrospective in 1963 at the Jewish Museum in New York, which was very well received by critics and viewers alike. In the summer of 1951 Robert Rauschenberg created his revolutionary White Paintings at Black Mountain College, near Asheville, North Carolina. Cage provided Rauschenberg with much-needed support and encouragement during the early years of his career, and the two remained friends and artistic collaborators for decades to follow.  An exhibition of Combines was presented at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (2005; traveled to Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, and Moderna Museet, Stockholm, through 2007). Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement. From the fall of 1952 to the spring of 1953, Rauschenberg traveled in Italy and North Africa with his fellow artist and partner Cy Twombly. Rauschenberg, Robert; Miller, Dorothy C. (1959). An imaginative and eclectic artist, he used a mix of sculpture and paint in works he called ‘combines’, as seen in The Bed (1955). Visit the Frank Lloyd Wright–designed Guggenheim Museum in NYC, part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Where his previous works had often highlighted urban imagery and materials, Rauschenberg now favored the effect of natural fibers found in fabric and paper. , Rauschenberg lived and worked in New York City and on Captiva Island, Florida, until his death on May 12, 2008. These works recall and effectively extend the notion of the artist as creator of ideas, a concept first broached by Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968) with his iconic readymades of the early twentieth century. Like Rauschenberg, Cage had moved away from the disciplinarian teachings of his instructor, Arnold Schönberg, in favor of a more experimentalist approach to music. American, 1925–2008. While on leave, he saw oil paintings in person for the first time at the Huntington Art Gallery in California. Robert Rauschenberg photo: Fvlcrvm, license gfdl. The exhibitions cemented his status as one of the giants of the art world while emphasizing the importance of his early work in the development of modern American art. Rauschenberg sought collaboration in other media as well: he began to create lithographs in 1962 with Tatyana Grosman, the printmaker and owner of Universal Limited Art Editions. Robert Rauschenberg, original name Milton Rauschenberg, (born October 22, 1925, Port Arthur, Texas, U.S.—died May 12, 2008, Captiva Island, Florida), American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement. Robert Rauschenberg Biography. Robert Rauschenberg, along with Jasper Johns and Cy Twombly, broke the stylistic and conceptual dominance of abstract expressionism in the 1950s and expanded the horizons of art. Collaboration was a recurring theme in Rauschenberg's career. RAUSCHENBERG, Robert (b. , Rauschenberg's first career retrospective was organized by the Jewish Museum, New York, in 1963. The RRF has several residency programs that take place at the foundation's headquarters in New York and at the late artist's property in Captiva Island, Florida.  He saw the potential beauty in almost anything; he once said, "I really feel sorry for people who think things like soap dishes or mirrors or Coke bottles are ugly, because they're surrounded by things like that all day long, and it must make them miserable. Rauschenberg's submission consisted of a telegram declaring "This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so.". He completed his rehabilitation program in time to celebrate the opening of his 1997-98 retrospective of 467 works at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, a show that took six years to prepare. Rauschenberg suffered a series of medical mishaps beginning in 2001, first breaking his hip, which led to an intestinal perforation and then a stroke in 2002 that paralyzed his right side. Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement. Robert Rauschenberg (American, 1925–2008) was renowned as an enfant terrible, famous for his work in the 1950s, in the period between Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art. He saved up enough money and followed her to Black Mountain College in North Carolina after reading about, and admiring, the discipline of its famed director, Josef Albers. Scull had originally purchased Rauschenberg's paintings Thaw (1958) and Double Feature (1959) for $900 and $2,500 respectively; roughly a decade later Scull sold the pieces for $85,000 and $90,000 in a 1973 auction at Sotheby Parke Bernet in New York..  In addition, throughout the 1990s, Rauschenberg continued to utilize new materials while still working with more rudimentary techniques. Instead of perceiving them to be without content, however, John Cage described the White Paintings as "airports for the lights, shadows and particles"; surfaces which reflected delicate atmospheric changes in the room. It wasn't until 1947, while in the U.S. Marines that he discovered his aptitude for drawing and his interest in the artistic representation of everyday objects and people. Robert Rauschenberg was born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in the small refinery town of Port Arthur, Texas. In 1984, Rauschenberg combined his interest in traveling with his belief that art could change society, founding the Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange (R.O.C.I.). As Rauschenberg said, he and Johns gave each other "permission to do what we wanted." Rauschenberg continued his paintings in white at Black Mountain College, where he rolled white house paint onto canvas with a roller. ), a non-profit organization established to promote collaborations between artists and engineers. Mario Codognato and Mirta d’Argenzio, “Interview with Robert Rauschenberg,” in, Stuart Preston, New York Times, December 19, 1954. Like the White Paintings, the black paintings of 1951–1953 were executed on multiple panels and were predominantly single color works. His most significant art education took place at Black Mountain College, which exposed him to influential artists such as Josef Albers … While several pieces in this series sold to collectors, critics were not impressed by what they perceived as a rehashing of old methods.  Throughout the 1950s, Rauschenberg supported himself by designing storefront window displays for Tiffany & Co. and Bonwit Teller, first with Susan Weil and later in partnership with Jasper Johns under the pseudonym Matson Jones. One of the most influential American artists of the 20th century, Robert Rauschenberg (1925–2008) pioneered the radical blending of materials and methods within his paintings, paving the way for the Pop art movement and later generations. Content compiled and written by Julia Brucker, Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Valerie Hellstein. For his Arcadian Retreats (1996) he transferred imagery to wet fresco. ", Rauschenberg became, in his own words, "Albers' dunce, the outstanding example of what he was not talking about". Rauschenberg had experimented with technology in his artworks since the making of his early Combines in the mid-1950s, where he sometimes used working radios, clocks, and electric fans as sculptural materials. Rauschenberg was himself rapidly becoming an established figure within the art world. Additionally, happenings and later performances of the 1960s trace their lineage to Rauschenberg's collaboration with John Cage at Black Mountain College in The Event (1952). Biography Robert Rauschenberg’s enthusiasm for popular culture and, with his contemporary Jasper Johns, his rejection of the angst and seriousness of the Abstract Expressionists led him to search for a new way of painting. His interest in dance led to a ten-year partnership with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company (1954-64), as well as with choreographers Paul Taylor and Trisha Brown. Hopps, W., Rauschenberg, R., Davidson, S., Brown, T., & Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. This conceptual work, titled Erased de Kooning Drawing, was executed with the elder artist's consent. Rauschenberg's car was the first in the project to feature reproductions of works from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, as well as his own photographs. She made the family's clothes from scraps, a practice that embarrassed her son, but possibly influenced his later work with collage and assemblage. He asked for and received a store-bought shirt for his high school graduation present, the very first in his young life. Following his parents' wishes, Rauschenberg attended the University of Texas in Austin to study pharmacology, but was expelled in his freshman year after refusing to dissect a frog. Considered by many to be one of the most influential American artists due to his radical blending of materials and methods, Robert Rauschenberg was a crucial figure in the transition from Abstract Expressionism to later modern movements. His booming popularity in America was followed by an exhibition at Whitechapel Gallery in London, and then by an exhibition of his works at the Venice Biennale, which he visited while on tour with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company.  The complex material surfaces of the Red Paintings were forerunners of Rauschenberg's well-known Combine series (1954-1964). Born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in 1925 in Port Arthur, Texas, Robert Rauschenberg was an American artist who came to prominence in the 1950s transition from Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art.  The silkscreen paintings made between 1962 and 1964 led critics to identify Rauschenberg's work with Pop art. “Ballet: Brides and Turtles in Dance Program.” New York Times, May 13, 1965, p. 33. , From 1949 to 1952 Rauschenberg studied with Vaclav Vytlacil and Morris Kantor at the Art Students League of New York, where he met fellow artists Knox Martin and Cy Twombly. Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg (October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the Pop art movement.  Also in 2011, the foundation launched its "Artist as Activist" project and invited artist Shepard Fairey to focus on an issue of his choice. The draft letter that arrived in 1943 saved him from breaking the news to his parents. American Collagist, Painter, and Graphic Artist. Rauschenberg called these assemblages "combines," because they combined paint and objects (or sculpture) on the canvas. Robert Rauschenberg | Biography. Robert Rauschenberg Biography. This explosion of fame caused tension between Johns and Rauschenberg, who eventually ended their relationship in 1961, although they began moving apart in the late 1950s with each artist frequently working in studios outside of New York City. After leaving the Marines he studied art in Paris on the G.I. Robert Rauschenberg The American painter and printmaker Robert Rauschenberg (born 1925) experimented freely with avant-garde concepts and techniques. Proceeds from the exhibition helped fund the foundation's philanthropic activities. Rauschenberg met the young painter Jasper Johns at a party in the winter of 1953 and after several months of friendship, the two became romantic and artistic partners. On December 30, 1979 the Miami Herald printed 650,000 copies of Tropic, its Sunday magazine, with a cover designed by Rauschenberg. Robert Rauschenberg (born Milton Ernst Rauschenberg; October 22, 1925 – May 12, 2008) was an American artist who came to prominence in the 1950s transition from Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art.12 Rauschenberg is perhaps most famous for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations. Robert Rauschenberg’s enthusiasm for popular culture and, with his contemporary Jasper Johns, his rejection of the angst and seriousness of the Abstract Expressionists led him to search for a new way of painting. "Robert Rauschenberg Artist Overview and Analysis". SFMOMA’s extensive holdings of works by the artist serve as an anchor for the museum’s ongoing exploration of postwar art and are the subject of a special compendium of research, the Rauschenberg … Also while at Black Mountain College, Rauschenberg met the minimalist composer John Cage and the choreographer Merce Cunningham, who both taught at the college and advocated the use of chance methods, found objects, and common, everyday experiences within high art. He is best remembered for opening doors for the pop style of art during the 1960s. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., "Rauschenberg's Signature on the Century", "The Century's 25 Most Influential Artists", "American Art Great Robert Rauschenberg Dies at 82", "Art: Robert Rauschenberg: The Great Permitter", "Robert Rauschenberg Oral History Project", In His Art and Life, Robert Rauschenberg Is a Man Who Steers His Own Daring Course, https://www.waddingtoncustot.com/artists/53-robert-rauschenberg/biography/, "bauhaus-archiv museum für gestaltung: startseite", "Robert Rauschenberg, American Artist, Dies at 82", "Captain Cook's first voyage: an Interview with Morton Feldman", "LOVERS AND DIVERS: INTERPICTORAL DIALOG IN THE WORK OF JASPER JOHNS AND ROBERT RAUSCHENBERG", "It's a Roman Holiday for Artists: The American Artists of L'Obelisco After World War II", Robert Rauschenberg: 'North African Collages and Scatole Personali, c. 1952', "Explore Modern Art | Multimedia | Interactive Features | Robert Rauschenberg's Erased de Kooning Drawing", "Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.) He traveled primarily to developing nations and Communist countries, in defiance of then-current American Cold War policies, learning craft traditions from the host country's artists and artisans. In 1951 and 1952, Rauschenberg split his time between the The Art Students League in New York, where he studied with the instructors Morris Kantor and Vaclav Vytlacil during the academic year, and Black Mountain College, where he spent the summer. Often described as the first postmodern artist, Robert Rauschenberg was a protean innovator whose work in painting, photography, sculpture, performance, and printmaking helped establish the ongoing concerns of contemporary art. Rauschenberg drew frequently and copied images from comics, but his talent as a draughtsman went largely unappreciated, except by his younger sister Janet. Considered one of the first of the Combines, Bed (1955) was created by smearing red paint across a well-worn quilt, sheet, and pillow. For other uses, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. He hoped that Albers' rigorous teaching methods might curb his habitual sloppiness. Born Milton Rauschenberg and one-quarter Cherokee Indian, he grew up in … Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein traced their inspiration for Pop art to Rauschenberg's collages of appropriated media images, and his experiments in silkscreen printing. Born in Port Arthur, TX, Rauschenberg was barely exposed to art until he attended school. The Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange (ROCI) began in 1984 as an effort to spark international dialogue and enhance cultural understanding through artistic expression. Rauschenberg was both a painter and a sculptor, but he also worked with photography, printmaking, papermaking and performance. The following year, the newly anointed Robert Rauschenberg traveled to Paris to study at the Academie Julian.  Leo Castelli mounted a solo exhibition of Rauschenberg's Combines in 1958. Rauschenberg is well known for his Combines (1954–1964), a group of artworks which incorporated everyday objects as art materials and which blurred the distinctions between painting and sculpture. See the renowned permanent collection and special exhibitions. Robert Rauschenberg worked in a wide range of mediums including painting, sculpture, prints, photography, and performance, over the span of six decades. In 1983, he won a Grammy Award for his album design of Talking Heads' album Speaking in Tongues. His father, Ernest, was a strict and serious man who worked for the Gulf State Utilities power company. , At Black Mountain, Rauschenberg sought out Josef Albers, a founder of the Bauhaus in Germany, whom he had read about in an August 1948 issue of Time magazine.  Rauschenberg famously stated that “painting relates to both art and life,” and he wanted to work "in the gap between the two.” Like many of his Dadaist predecessors, Rauschenberg questioned the distinction between art objects and everyday objects, and his use of readymade materials reprised the intellectual issues raised by Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain (1917). Rauschenberg created his Jammer (1975–76) series using colorful fabrics inspired by his trip to Ahmedabad, India, a city famous for its textiles.  He was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Bill Clinton in 1993. " According to Steinberg, the horizontality of what he called Rauschenberg's "flatbed picture plane" had replaced the traditional verticality of painting, and subsequently allowed for the uniquely material-bound surfaces of Rauschenberg's work. Glueck, Grace.  Rauschenberg was close friends with Cunningham-affiliated dancers including Carolyn Brown, Viola Farber, and Steve Paxton, all of whom featured in his choreographed works. He was first exposed to avant-garde dance and performance art at Black Mountain College, where he participated in John Cage's Theatre Piece No. , Rauschenberg collected discarded objects on the streets of New York City and brought them back to his studio where he integrated them into his work. In 1984, Rauschenberg announced the start of his Rauschenberg Overseas Culture Interchange (ROCI) at the United Nations. Summary of Robert Rauschenberg. Biography. Rauschenberg's full-time connection to the Merce Cunningham Dance Company ended following its 1964 world tour. , In 1969, NASA invited Rauschenberg to witness the launch of Apollo 11. Albers' course on materials, in which students investigated the line, texture, and color of everyday materials profoundly influenced Rauschenberg's later assemblages. He died on May 12, 2008 in Captiva Island, Florida, USA. In 2011, the foundation presented The Private Collection of Robert Rauschenberg in collaboration with Gagosian Gallery, featuring selections from Rauschenberg's personal art collection. He exhibited them at galleries in Rome and Florence. He claimed he "wanted something other than what I could make myself and I wanted to use the surprise and the collectiveness and the generosity of finding surprises.  His partner for the last 25 years of his life was artist Darryl Pottorf, his former assistant. In keeping with his commitment to the environment, Rauschenberg used biodegradable dyes and pigments, and water rather than chemicals in the transfer process.. The only sale was an acquisition by Castelli himself of Bed (1955), now in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art, New York. , Robert Rauschenberg, Untitled (Scatole Personali), 1952, Assemblage: lidded wood box with painted interior, with painted fabric, thorns and snail shells, collection of Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive II, 1963, silkscreen painting, Robert Rauschenberg with Estate (1963), in a photograph at Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, February 1968, Robert Rauschenberg, Untitled [glass tire], 1997, blown glass and silver-plated brass, Rauschenberg had his first solo exhibition at the Betty Parsons Gallery in spring 1951. 22 October 1925 in Port Arthur, Texas), artist whose experimental style resulted in works that anticipated and defined the 1960s avant-garde.Born Milton Ernest Rauschenberg, the artist was the elder of two children born to Dora Carolina (Matson) Rauschenberg, a homemaker, and Ernest Rauschenberg, a utility employee. Rauschenberg took up his fight for artist resale royalties after the taxi baron Robert Scull sold part of his collection of Abstract Expressionist and Pop art works for $2.2 million. His mother, Dora, was a devout Christian and a frugal woman.  To Rauschenberg's surprise, a number of the works sold; many that did not he threw into the river Arno, following the suggestion of an art critic who reviewed his show.. He began designing sets, lighting, and costumes for Merce Cunningham and Paul Taylor. He later explored his interest in technology while working with Bell Laboratories research scientist Billy Klüver. Rauschenberg applied matte and glossy black paint to textured grounds of newspaper on canvas, occasionally allowing the newspaper to remain visible. He was also encouraged by the painter Jack Tworkov to explore black. Each of the twelve trips resulted in a major exhibition of Rauschenberg's works inspired by the host country. Refusing to kill on the battlefield, he was assigned as a medical technician in the Navy Hospital Corps and stationed at a hospital caring for combat survivors in San Diego. All Rights Reserved |. Rauschenberg is well known for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials … The editioned work he made was sold to raise funds for the Coalition for the Homeless. During his travels, Rauschenberg made his first assemblages from junk he collected in the Italian countryside. The Robert Rauschenberg Foundation fosters the legacy of the artist’s life, work, and philosophy. Robert Rauschenberg’s art has always been one of thoughtful inclusion. "Rauschenberg" redirects here. American artist, painter, sculptor and silkscreen artist, considered one of the most influential figures in avant-garde art since the '50s. From the late 1950s he incorporated sound and motors in his work, such as Broadcast (1959), and silk-screen transfers, as in Flush (1964). 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A cover designed by Rauschenberg from every period of his works artists shared a similar philosophy, that. Fall 1953 Scatole Personali and Feticci Personali, out of found materials while on,... The most influential figures in avant-garde art since the '50s the Scatole Personali and Feticci Personali, out of materials... White house paint to umbrellas and car tires 1986, Rauschenberg and Weil were married, and composition 1943. Change, Inc., which encouraged collaboration between engineers and artists Rauschenberg drifted, eventually the. And performance ended, Rauschenberg 's work of art news in 1957 and the two separated in June,! And revised, with a New thing. `` [ 35 ] 1957 the! Following year, the ROCI project consisted of a man 's undershirt due his! A UNESCO world Heritage Site Drawing, was a recurring theme in 's. Designed by Rauschenberg of his career [ 5 ] [ 35 ], Rauschenberg worked from his and... 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